Biak Na Bato Agreement

A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drawn up by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. Signed on November 18, 1897. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution provided for the creation of a Supreme Council to serve as the supreme body of the Republic`s government. He also described some fundamental human rights, such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press and the right to education. Emilio Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias were elected respectively President of the Supreme Council and Vice-President. The Biak-na-Bato pact Pedro Paterno, a Spaniard born in the Philippines, volunteered to be a negotiator between Aguinaldo and Governor Primo de Rivera to end the clashes. Paterno`s efforts paid off when he signed the pact on 15 December 1897 as a representative of the revolutionaries and of Rivera as a representative of the Spanish government. The heads of state and government are: Emilio Aguinaldo President, Mariano Trias- Vice-President, Antonio Montenegro Secretary, Baldomero Aguinaldo Treasurer and Emilio Riego de Dios. On 23 December 1897, Generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet of the Spanish Army arrived in Biak-na-Bato and became hostages of the rebels. Both sides have declared a ceasefire and an agreement has been reached between Aguinaldo and the Spanish armed forces for the Spanish government to self-govern in the Philippines in three years, when Aguinaldo goes into exile and surrenders his weapons.

In exchange, Aguinaldo received the P800,000 (Mexican pesos) in compensation for revolutionaries and an amnesty. After receiving a partial payment of 400,000 P, Aguinaldo went to Hong Kong on 27 December 1897. However, some Filipino generals did not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. They refused to surrender their weapons. Yet the Te Deum was sung on January 23, 1898. The biak na-bato pact, we revolutionaries have fulfilled our obligation to surrender our weapons, which, as everyone knows, exceed a thousand, since it was published in the newspapers of Manila. But the captain, General Primo de Rivera, did not respect the agreement as faithfully as we did.